1) Spermatorrhoea (Dhat)
2) Polyurea (Excessive Urination)
Spermatorrhoea (Dhat) is involuntary emission of semen without orgasm. According to a more widely received view, spermatorrhoea consists in the emission of semen without copulation, or in involuntary seminal losses of every kind. If the former definition be defective by reason of too limited scope, the latter is defective in a more injurious degree, because it embraces a physiological as well as a pathological state.
In such cases, semen passes either while passing urine or while passing stool when straining due to constipation. In few cases, the semen passes even before urination or also mixed with urine. In Spermatorrhea, the semen is secreted from testicles. It has also been noticed that some time instead of semen, secretion is passed from the prostate, which is known as prostatorrhea. The secretion from the prostate is milky without Spermatozoa while on the other hand in semen, spermatozoa are present.
This can be checked by the help of microscope. Over and above, sometimes the secretions take place from vesicles or Cowper’s glands. The secretion of vesicles is yellow in color and that of Cowper’s glands is colorless like water.
However, if prostatorrhea is not checked may cause Spermatorrhea. Therefore, this ailment should not be ignored at all and should be treated as soon as possible since it disturbs the whole nervous system and may cause impotency.
Urinating too much liquid (Polyurea) needs to be distinguished from the slightly different symptoms of excessively frequent urination, urinary dribbling, or unusual urgency to urinate. Urinating too much fluid or urinating too often can indicate several serious medical conditions. Some possibilities include urinary tract infections, bladder conditions (e.g. interstitial cystitis), or prostate conditions (e.g. BPH). Also possible are metabolic conditions such as Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, or diabetes insipidus.
Causes of Polyuria
The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Polyuria.
Urinary tract infections
Benign prostate hypertrophy
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Poorly controlled diabetes
Chronic renal failure
Congestive heart failure
Noctural polyuria syndrome
Following relief of obstruction
During recovery from acute tubular necrosis
Craial diabetes insipidus (see Diabetes insipidus)
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Early chronic pyelonephritis
After migraine attack
Acute tubular necrosis
Chronic glomerulonephritis (type of Glomerulonephritis)
Radiographic contrast media
3) Pus cells present in urine
The presence of pus cells in the urine indicates an ailment in the body. In medical parlance, passage of pus cells in urine is called Pyuria.
• Pyuria can be microscopic or gross. With large number of pus cells, the urine may appear turbid or it may be purulent.
• Pus cells are white blood cells that signify infection in the body, especially if the urine also contains bacteria.
• Presence of pus cells in the urine may also be a sign of infection or inflammation in the kidneys and bladder. Since the urine has to pass through the kidneys and the bladder, it may pick up some pus cells from there before voiding.
• The mere presence of pus cells in the urine may not clearly indicate what type of infection or ailment the patient is suffering from. In such cases, urine test for culture and sensitivity is of great help.
• Further blood tests may be requested to check for certain levels of components and compounds in the blood.
Symptoms of Pus Cells in Urine
There may no be any visible and obvious outward symptom of pus cells in urine. However, some of the common symptoms are:
• Painful, burning sensation when urinating
• Abdominal cramps
It is critical to identify these symptoms at an early stage so appropriate diagnosis and treatment can be administered.
Causes of pus cells in urine :
Urinary tract infections (UTIs):UTIs are the commonest cause of pus cells in urine. The infection could be anywhere from the kidneys to the urethra, thou gh bladder infection (cystitis) is the commonest. It’s generally an uncomplicated condition that can be promptly resolved with antibiotics.
People with a UTI: People with a UTI generally also have a large number of bacteria in their urine. In some cases pus cells are found in urine but no bacteria or other infectious organism is found on urine tests. The possible causes of pus cells without bacteria in urine are:
Uncommon organisms: Some organisms causing infections in the urinary tract do not show up on standard urine culture for indentifying bacteria, for e.g. some sexually-transmitted agents that cause urethral infection. Your doctor may have to order special tests for detecting them. Depending on your medical history and symptoms, some organisms that your doctor may want to test for are N. gonorrheae, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Trichomonas.
Tuberculosis : Tuberculosis of the urinary tract can also cause pus cells in urine with negative urine culture. It is a relatively uncommon condition but tests to rule it out may be needed.
Kidney stones : Stones cause irritation and inflammation in the urinary tract which can lead to pus cells in urine. Kidney stones nearly always also cause the appearance of red blood cells (RBCs) in urine.
Interstitial cystitis : Interstitial cystitis is a noninfectious condition causing inflammation of the bladder. It is much more common in women than in men. Its symptoms are similar to cystitis but no organism is found on urine culture.
Prostatitis : Inflammation of the prostate gland in men because of infection or other causes can cause pus cells in urine.
Cancer : Pus cells in urine are also found in cancers of the kidney or bladder. Cancers often also cause the appearance of blood in urine. The likelihood of cancers increases with age. They are uncommon in people <40 years of age.
Kidney diseases : Pus cells in urine are found in many noninfectious conditions affecting the kidneys such as glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, lupus nephritis, renal tubular acidosis, renal papillary necrosis, and polycystic kidneys. These diseases produce significant clinical symptoms and many other significant findings on urine test such as protein and blood in urine.
Renal papillary necrosis : Damage to the kidneys because of diabetes or analgesic abuse can cause pus cells in urine.
Diseases affecting other organs : At times a serious infection in a organ close to the urinary tract, the appendix for example, can cause pus cells in urine.
Other causes : Any urinary tract surgery, including prostate surgery, can cause increased pus cells in urine for a long time even in the absence of infection. Stress, dehydration, exercise and certain drugs are also known to cause pus cells in urine.
4) Enuresis (Bed wetting)
Bedwetting, also called nocturnal enuresis, is the involuntary passage of urine (urinary incontinence) while asleep. Inherent in the definition of bedwetting is satisfactory bladder control while the person is awake. Therefore, urination while awake is a different condition and has a variety of difference causes than bedwetting.
What are the types of bedwetting?
There are two types of bedwetting:
1. Primary enuresis : bedwetting since infancy
2. Secondary enuresis : wetting developed after being continually dry for a minimum of six months
What is primary bedwetting?
Primary bedwetting is viewed as a delay in maturation of the nervous system. At 5 years of age, approximately 20% of children wet the bed at least once a month, with about 5% of males and 1% of females wetting nightly. By 6 years of age, only about 10% of children are bedwetters -- the large majority being boys. The percentage of all children who are bedwetters continues to diminish by 50% each year after 5 years of age. Family history plays a big role in predicting primary bedwetting. If one parent was a bedwetter, the offspring have a 45% chance of a developing primary enuresis as well.
What is the basic problem in primary bedwetting ?
The fundamental problem for children with primary bedwetting is the inability to recognize messages of the nervous system sent by the full bladder to the sleep arousal centers of the brain while asleep. In addition, bladder capacity is often smaller in bedwetting children than in their peers.
5) Dysuria (Burning sensation in urine)
Dysuria is difficulty urinating, which may include pain, burning or cramps. Dysuria may appear as a side effect of some psychiatric medications, including:
• Many antipsychotics
• Tricyclic antidepressants
• Klonopin (clonazepam)
• Cogentin (benztropine)
• Gabitril (tiagabine)
Infection of the urinary tract (urethra, bladder, or kidneys) is the most common cause of dysuria. The most common type of infections are cystitis (bladder infection), pyelonephritis (kidney infection), prostatitis (prostate infection), and urethritis (inflammation of the tube, the urethra, that drains the bladder to the outside of the body). Sexually transmitted diseases can also produce symptoms of dysuria.
Other causes of dysuria include
Trauma : local injury or irritation due to catheter placement or sexual contact
Anatomic obstructions/malformations: obstruction due to an enlarged prostate or urethral stricture
Pain due to external lesions on the genitalia: Urine touching the lesion causes pain
External irritation or reaction: frequent douching or application of irritating/allergenic products
Hormonal : postmenopausal effects
Neurologic conditions: any nerve conditions that cause difficulty with bladder emptying
Cancer : kidney tumor, bladder, prostate, vaginal/vulvar, or penile cancer
Medical conditions: diabetes mellitus and other chronic conditions that suppress the immune system
6) Retention of urine due to stone or prostate enlargement
A non-cancerous condition that affects many men past 50 years of age, enlarged prostate makes urinating more difficult by narrowing the urethra, a tube running from the bladder through the prostate gland.
The common term for enlarged prostate is BPH, which stands for benign (non-cancerous) pro-static hyperplasia or hypertrophy. Hyperplasia means that the prostate cells are dividing too rapidly, increasing the total number of cells, and, therefore, the size of the organ itself. Hypertrophy simply means "enlargement." BPH is part of the aging process. The actual changes in the prostate may start as early as the 30s but take place very gradually, so that significant enlargement and symptoms usually do not appear until after age 50. Past this age the chances of the prostate enlarging and causing urinary symptoms become progressively greater. More than 40% of men in their 70s have an enlarged prostate. Symptoms generally appear between ages 55-75. About 10% of all men eventually will require treatment for BPH.
Causes and symptoms
The cause of BPH is a mystery, but age-related changes in the levels of hormones circulating in the blood may be a factor. Whatever the cause, an enlarging prostate gradually narrows the urethra and obstructs the flow of urine. Even though the muscle in the bladder wall becomes stronger in an attempt to push urine through the smaller urethra, in time, the bladder fails to empty completely at each urination. The urine that collects in the bladder can become infected and lead to stone formation. The kidneys themselves may be damaged by infection or by urine constantly "backing up."
When the enlarging prostate gland narrows the urethra, a man will have increasing trouble starting the urine stream. Because some urine remains behind in the bladder, he will have to urinate more often, perhaps two or three times at night (Nocturia). The need to urinate can become very urgent and, in time, urine may dribble out to stain a man's clothing. Other symptoms of BPH are a weak and sometimes a split stream and general aching or pain in the perineum (the area between the scrotum and anus. Some men may have considerable enlargement of the prostate before even mild symptoms develop.
If a man must strain hard to force out the urine, small veins in the bladder wall and urethra may rupture, causing blood to appear in the urine. If the urinary stream becomes totally blocked, the urine collecting in the bladder may cause severe discomfort, a condition called acute urinary retention. Urine that stagnates in the bladder can easily become infected. A burning feeling during urination and fever are clues that infection may have developed. Finally, if urine backs up long enough it may increase pressure in the kidneys, though this rarely causes permanent kidney damage.
7) Nocturia (urination in night)
Excessive urination at night is a condition in which you wake up several times during the night to urinate. Waking up at night to urinate is called nocturia.
Normally, urine decreases in amount and becomes more concentrated at night. That means most people can sleep 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate.
People who have nocturia get up during the night to urinate. Because of this, they often have disrupted sleep cycles.
• Benign prostatic hyperplasia
• Chronic or repeated urinary tract infections
• Drinking alcohol, caffeinated beverages, or too much fluid before bedtime
• Chronic renal failure
• Congestive heart failure
• High blood calcium level
• Medications including diuretics, demeclocycline, lithium, methoxyflurane, phenytoin, and propoxyphene
• Obstructive sleep apnea and other sleeping disorders